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aerial photograph of Caerphilly Castle, Caerphilly, South Wales, UK. Caerphilly Castle was built by the Earl of Gloucester in the 13th century. The extensive size and water defences make it the second largest castle in the UK after Windsor. The castle held firm against attacks during the Welsh rebellion of 1294-5 but by the 16th century the castle had fallen into disuse. Today it is preserved and managed by CADW.