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aerial photograph of Cardiff Castle Wales ( Castell Caerdydd ) Originally a timber Norman Motte and Bailey Castle built in the 11th century on the site of a Roman Fort which dated from the third century AD. This was rebuilt in stone in the 12th century. The castle was continually improved and continually attacked during the medieval period, most notably by the forces of Owain Glyndwr in 1404 during the Welsh revolt. The castle was much fought over during the English civil war, changing sides several times. After the war it was one of the few castles which were retained for military purposes and not slighted. The castle was remodeled as a mansion house during the 18th and 19th centuries.